How does ice damage and freezing work

So I am not sure how exactly does freezing enemies work.

First of all I imagine cold damage should be in blue numbers, right?

So how does this work then?

A) Cold arrow rune attack on the bow comes out as blue damage numbers. Simple, easy, makes sense

B)Regular attack animation form a bow that has a cold damage from gem comes out with white numbers even though stat line literally says cold damage. Is it freezing can it freeze?

C) I can freeze most mobs sooner rather then later(more below) but nothing I can do seems to freeze EK. I could swear i did it once but at this point i am second guessing myself and wondering if i am misremembering.

D) it seems mobs freeze faster the bigger the cold damage numbers(in blue)

All that in mind does here are my questions.

1)How exactly does freezing work?

2)Do MOBS have freeze resist? (i mean Piece characters certainly have resist stats).

3)Do you need a flat amount of cold damage delt per second to freeze?

4)Is EK somehow different here?

  1. Can regular attacks with cold damage weapons freeze?

  2. Why does fallen sky’s regular attack freeze(some mobs after 2 hits smoe mobs 3 or more) and regular attack with cold damage bow does not?

I am just really confused with mechanics of freezing

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I cant back this up by anything so feel free to ignore or wait for someone who actually knows what they are talking about.

So far I feel from what enemies inflicted on me is that none of the elemental attacks do much. Poison and fire nibble at my hp bar a bit. Electricity and Ice dont seem to do much. Maybe its just really early and wasnt implemented as it should yet.

After testing my most educated guess is there is a damage threshold to which enemies can be frozen. It may be % based but I can’t be certain.

You need to really juice your dex to freeze with bow in the current game. I can freeze some mobs in 1 shot and others in 2 around 80. You’ll also need damage surge to push the numbers along with a rune ring for me. Short version it’s completely possible to freeze with bow but again feels damage oriented.

That said fallen sky seems to stack cold much quicker than ice arrow and I think it’s just because it does more cold damage than chaining ice arrows.

Side note the cold proficiency helmet infusion seems bigged (no just the lack of text).

Yeah theres a bar under their life and when you fill that they freeze, even the Echo Knight freezes, even you i guess, and i have died from fire dot and plague dot already, if the damn food is on cooldown anything is possible hehehe. I froze Echo with my rust sword doing ice damage, a lot of rune attacks though, but it works.

That bar on normal mobs doesn’t seem to represent element stats. I routinely freeze mobs where that bar is maybe 10% at best.

Pretty sure that’s a poise bar

Assuming that it works the same for players and mobs:

Normal attacks with elemental infusion, deal “extra” elemental damage on top of the base physical.
This means only a part of the damage is elemental. You should see a white and a blue damage number when hitting with your bow.

Elemental damage builds up until it reaches a certain value and then triggers a debuff.
That value might be based on max health, which would explain bosses being very resistant to debuffs.

There are elemental resistances that reduce the damage/buildup.

Buildup is reduced over time so you need a certain amount of DPS to freeze.

Falling sky does 100% of its damage as cold while the bow attacks deal physical damage plus some extra cold damage from the gem.

Bow rune attacks are 100% elemental unlike say, weapon enhancement plus light/heavy attacks where it is an adaptive bonus.

Or at least based on the damage numbers. I used to 140 something with just damage surge on a charged elemental arrows. Meanwhile with a dagger in the other hand with lightning added via rune it’ll only hit for 30’s flat phys and a small added elemental bonus.

I’d say the pop up numbers could be misleading but I’m leaning towards not because on high armor targets in crucible they do basically double the damage of the basic arrow rune. So I’m assuming near true damage. The mobs don’t seem to have much elemental res at the moment.

That bar is definitely has nothing to do with freezing, because i froze mobs before the bar filled in. I am pretty certain that’s just a stagger bar.